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The Constitution of India and Free Speech

1949
The Constitution of India and Free Speech

India

The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, replacing the Government of India Act 1935 as the Republic of India’s fundamental legal document. Article 19(1a) of the Indian Constitution establishes “the right to freedom of speech and expression”.
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The Life of Wu Xun

1950
The Life of Wu Xun

China

Sun Yu’s film The Life of Wu Xun (1950) was banned in 1951 following a number of editorial critiques from Mao Zedong in the People’s Daily newspaper.
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Report of the Film Enquiry Committee

1951

India

In the two years since the Cinematograph Amendment Act 1949 had established the dual-category certificate system (including the “U” and “A” categories), the report noted that some producers and exhibitors had exploited the A certificate in promotional material, implying that it contained “salacious” content.
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Cinematograph Act

1952

India

On 21 March 1952 The Cinematograph Act 1952 replaced former legislation on film censorship, specifically the Cinematograph Act 1918.
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Shri 420

1955
Shri 420

India

Directed, produced, and starring Raj Kapoor, arguably Hindi cinema’s most canonical actor, Shri 420 (Mr 420) was India’s highest grossing film in 1955 and is widely remembered for its song “Mera Joota Hai Japani” (“My shoes are Japanese”).
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Children’s Film Society

1955
Children’s Film Society

India

The Children’s Film Society India (CFSI) was established in 1955 as a registered society with state funding to produce and distribute films for children.
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Crazed Fruit and Yūjirō Ishihara

1956
Crazed Fruit and Yūjirō Ishihara

Japan

Probably the most well-known of the films, Crazed Fruit centres on a love triangle between two college-age brothers, Natsuhisa (Yūjirō Ishihara) and Haruji (Masahiko Tsugawa), and the object of their affections, Eri (Mie Kitahara) (Yūjirō and Kitahara married in 1959).

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Taiyōzoku Films: Season of the Sun

1956
Taiyōzoku Films: Season of the Sun

Japan

First published as a novella in 1955, Season of the Sun is a classic Japanese story of problem youth and along with Crazed Fruit the most famous of the taiyōzoku films.
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Cinematograph Amendment Act 1959

1959

India

The Cinematograph Amendment Act 1959 connected in Indian law the principle of freedom of speech and expression and the practice of censoring film.
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Cruel Story of Youth

1960
Cruel Story of Youth

Japan

Following his debut film, A Town of Love and Hope (1959), Nagisa Ōshima released his first colour film Cruel Story of Youth (Seishun Zankoku Monogatori) in 1960.
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